Volume 7, Issue 3 (August 2020)                   Avicenna J Neuro Psycho Physiology 2020, 7(3): 165-171 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Pourabdol S, Roshan R, Yaghubi H, Sobhi Gharmaleki N, Gholami Fesharaki M. Relationship Between Intensity of Anger and its Expression in Competitive Athletes: Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation. Avicenna J Neuro Psycho Physiology 2020; 7 (3) :165-171
URL: http://ajnpp.umsha.ac.ir/article-1-235-en.html
1- PhD of Clinical Psychology, Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2- Professor of Psychology, Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran , rasolroshan@yahoo.com
3- Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology, Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4- Associate Professor of Psychology, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
5- Assistant Professor of Biostatistics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Full-Text [PDF 1523 kb]   (618 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (1473 Views)
Full-Text:   (737 Views)
Although anger and its clinical behavioral effects often lead to significant intra- and interpersonal outcomes, there is currently no criterion for the diagnosis of anger disorders [1]. In the context of the classification of psychiatric illnesses, anger is merely one of the traits involved in various mental disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and borderline personality disorder [1]. Due to the lack of diagnostic criteria to date, there has been
no epidemiological study conducted on anger management [2].
There have been some studies on the anger and aggressive behaviors of soccer [3], basketball [4], rugby [5], ice hockey [6], and baseball [7] players. Several studies conducted to compare the levels of aggressive behaviors between athletes and non-athletes have shown that athletes have a higher level of aggressive behaviors than non-athletes [8-11]. Based on the evidence, it has also been demonstrated that anger and aggression increase an individualʼs level of arousal and direct the attention to an inappropriate and ineffective outcome, such as hurting an opponent [12].
Based on recent developments in experimental psychopathology and emotional sciences, especially with regard to emotion regulation processes, Gardner and Moore [13] have proposed a theoretical model for the perception of the relationship between anger and aggressive/violent behavior. This model is called the Anger Avoidance Model. The model suggests that specific psychological vulnerability which is mostly associated with the clinical manifestations of anger is emotion dysregulation, including the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states and inability to appropriately express anger.
In order to properly perceive emotion dysregulation, one should first consider emotion regulation. Many researchers have defined emotion regulation, including definitions, such as the capacity to tolerate and appropriately express emotion [14]; therefore, emotion dysregulation is certainly related to the difficulties associated with all or any of these processes. Gardner and Moore [13] pointed out that avoiding or inhibiting anger prevents adaptive information processing of anger and fails to learn that anger and other emotional states are not necessarily dangerous.
From this perspective, aggression or violence and cognitive avoidance (i.e., rumination and suppression) are two types of avoidant or escape behaviors that are chronically extreme and inflexible with a devastating consequence. In Gardner and Moore’s view, aggression is defined as the avoidance and low control of anger leading to aggression, and anger rumination is defined as the avoidance of anger at the cognitive level associated with high control. The findings of a study carried out by Roberton and Daffern have also shown that difficulty in emotion regulation is associated with aggression [15]. In addition, recent findings supported this proposition and indicated the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in relation to experience and anger [16-18]. Similarly, in another study, emotional dysregulation mediated the association between restrictive emotionality and aggressive behavior in men [19].
In another study, the ability to perceive and emotion differentiation moderated the relationship between anger and aggression [20]. In a study carried out by Garofalo and Velotti [21], emotion dysregulation was also confirmed with a moderating role in the relationship between negative emotions and aggression. There have also been multiple studies demonstrating the role of emotion dysregulation in aggressive and impulsive behaviors [22-28]. Overall, related studies have highlighted the importance of emotion dysregulation in relation to anger and aggression (i.e., behavioral manifestation) or rumination and suppression (i.e., cognitive manifestation). However, emotion dysregulation seems to be one of the important factors in converting anger to self-expression.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between the intensity of anger and its self-expression in competitive athletes.
Materials and Methods
This correlational study was carried out based on structural relationships using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). In this study, the statistical population consisted of all the competitive athletes (all the athletes competing at any level of competition, either individual or collective) in Ardabil, Iran, in 2019. Out of all the athletes, 312 subjects were selected as the participants of this study. Firstly, 500 athletes (at the competitive level) were chosen by multistage cluster sampling. For this purpose, Ardebil was divided into four regions, including north, south, east, and west, and 10 exercise clubs and gymnasiums were selected from each region. In addition, the athletes with the eligible inclusion criteria were chosen from each club and gymnasium.
Out of all the athletes, 143 subjects either not submitting the questionnaire or submitting an incomplete one were excluded from the study, and 45 respondents were also ruled out from the study based on exclusion criteria. Consequently, 312 individuals were selected as the sample of the study. The inclusion criteria included at least 18 and up to 35 years of age, literacy, informed consent to participate in the study, and participation in competitive sports (all the athletes competing in any level of competition, either individual or collective).
The exclusion criteria consisted of a large mass of missing data, unwillingness to complete the questionnaire after receiving, substance abuse, and a history of repeated aggression. After permission from the coaches and staff of the club and gymnasium, the objectives of the study were explained to the athletes while attending the club, and they were invited to participate in the study. After filling out the consent form, the tests related to the model were provided to the athletes to be completed.
Research tools
Clinical Anger Scale (CAS)
It is an objective self-report tool designed by Snell et al. [29] to measure psychological symptoms that are assumed to be associated with the perception and treatment of clinical anger. The individuals were asked to read each of the 21 groups of words (4 in each group) and choose a sentence that best describes their feelings (e.g., item 1: A) I do not feel angry; B) I feel angry; C) I am angry most of the time; D) I am always angry and fighting with people so that I become exhausted). Each cluster of expressions was scored based on a 4-point Likert scale (a=0; b=1; c=2; d=3). Four sentences in each cluster differed on the severity of symptoms, and more severe clinical anger was associated with the expression d.
Finally, individuals’ responses to the CAS were summarized. Higher scores were associated with more clinical anger (21 items; score range: 0-63). In a study carried out by Snell et al. [29], internal consistency for 21 items of the CAS using Cronbachʼs alpha and reliability coefficient analysis of 0.94 was achieved at 0.95 for men and 0.92 for women. Preliminary evidence for the validity of the CAS was identified by the examination of the relationship between the CAS and scores associated with Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory.
Multidimensional Anger Inventory
This scale consists of 38 items. This self-report questionnaire was designed to evaluate anger as a multidimensional construct [30] and measures five dimensions of anger, namely 1) anger-arousal, 2) anger-eliciting situations, 3) hostile outlook, 4) anger-out, and 5) anger-in. Responses were scored based on a 5-point Likert scale. The subjects responded to each question on a 5-point scale ranging from one (i.e., completely false) to five (i.e., completely true). The scoring method was in a way that both the individual score factor and total score can be calculated. The correlation coefficient obtained from the test-retest as the reliability index for the two samples was 0.75, and internal consistency using Cronbachʼs alpha for the two samples obtained as 0.84 and 0.89, respectively [30].
In the Persian version of this questionnaire [31], Cronbach’s alpha for each subscale and total score of the questionnaire for student and general population samples was within the range of 0.75-0.91, indicating good internal consistency. Besharat [31] examined the content validity of the Multidimensional Anger Inventory based on the judgment of six psychologists and Kendallʼs coefficients of the agreement for each of the scales of anger-arousal, anger-eliciting situations, hostile outlook, anger-out, and anger-in reported as 0.81, 0.84, 0.77, 0.85, and 0.89, respectively. The subscales of anger-in and anger-out were used in the
present study.
Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale
This self-report questionnaire was designed by Gratz and Roemer [32]. The primary scale for difficulty in emotion regulation is a 36-item self-report measuring tool that has been formulated to clinically assess difficulty in emotion regulation [32]. The generalized Negative Mood Regulation Scale [32] has been used as a model for the development of this scale. Factor analysis revealed the existence of six factors of nonacceptance of emotional responses, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, impulse control difficulties, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity. The results indicated that this scale has a high internal consistency of 0.93 [32]. Based on the findings of a study conducted by Azizi et al. [33], Cronbachʼs alpha for this questionnaire was estimated to be 0.92. Convergent and discriminant validity of this scale was also confirmed by the Mental Health Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule at a p-value of less than 0.001 [34].
Data analysis method
After data collection, the data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 22) and PLS-SEM. Coefficients between paths, standard error, and t-statistic were used to investigate the direct and indirect effects. Additionally, the determination coefficient of model endogenous variables and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) index was utilized to test the structural model.
As shown in Table 1, the mean (standard deviation) intensity of anger, emotion dysregulation, behavioral escape (i.e., aggression), and cognitive avoidance (i.e., suppression/rumination) among the athletes were reported as 16.06 (10.52), 86.62 (20.65), 11.65 (2.8), and 17.57 (3.84), respectively.
Table 2 tabulates the correlation matrix of emotion dysregulation with respect to anger and its expression.
As presented in Figure 1 and Table 3, based on direct assumptions, there is a significant relationship between the intensity of anger and emotion
Table 1. Mean and standard deviation of study variables
Variable Mean Standard deviation
Intensity of anger 16.06 10.52
Emotion dysregulation 86.62 20.56
Behavioral escape (i.e., Aggression) 11.65 2.08
Cognitive avoidance (i.e., Suppression/Rumination) 17.57 3.84

Table 2. Correlation between study variables
4 3 2 1 Variable
      1 Intensity of anger
    1 0.61** Emotion dysregulation
  1 0.38** 0.32** Behavioral escape (i.e., Aggression)
1 0.14** 0.33** 0.25** Cognitive avoidance (i.e., Suppression/Rumination)

                           Figure 1. Structured model fitted with path coefficients of (β) and (T) in study population

Table 3. Results of β, S.E, T, and P of the model presented in study population
P-value (Sig) t S.E β Dependent variable Independent variable
>0.001 17.87 0.03 0.63 Emotion dysregulation Intensity of anger
>0.001 4.17 0.07 0.32 Behavioral escape (i.e., Aggression) Intensity of anger
>0.001 3.78 0.06 0.25 Cognitive avoidance (i.e., Suppression/Rumination) Intensity of anger
>0.001 3.26 0.07 0.26 Behavioral escape (i.e., Aggression) Emotion dysregulation
>0.001 7.20 0.05 0.43 Cognitive avoidance (i.e., Suppression/Rumination) Emotion dysregulation

Table 4. Analysis of indirect effects 
P-value (Sig) β Dependent variable Mediator variable Predictive variable
0.01> 0.16 Behavioral escape (i.e., Aggression) Emotion Dysregulation Intensity of anger
0.001> 0.27 Cognitive avoidance (i.e., Suppression/Rumination) Emotion Dysregulation Intensity of anger
dysregulation (β=0.63; P<0.001), intensity of anger and behavioral escape (i.e., aggression) (β=0.32; P<0.001), intensity of anger and cognitive avoidance (i.e., suppression/rumination) (β=0.25; P<0.001), emotion dysregulation and behavioral escape (i.e., aggression) (β=0.26; P<0.001), and emotion dysregulation and cognitive avoidance (i.e., repression/rumination) (β=0.43; P<0.001).
The results also showed that the indirect path of “intensity of anger à emotion dysregulation à behavioral escape (i.e., aggression)” was significant (β=0.16; P<0.001), and “intensity of anger à emotion dysregulation à cognitive avoidance (i.e., suppression/rumination)” was significant (β=0.27; P<0.001) (Table 4). Furthermore, the results of R2 of latent variables were 28% and 39% for the behavioral escape (i.e., aggression) and cognitive avoidance (i.e., suppression/rumination), respectively, indicating a good model fit. In addition, the SRMR index, which is one of the main indicators for the overall fit of the model in the PLS-SEM, was observed to be 0.07 in the present study, indicating a good overall fit of the present model.
The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between the intensity of anger and its expression in competitive athletes. The results
of the present study showed that emotion dysregulation played a mediating role in the relationship between the intensity of anger and its expression among competitive athletes. These results are in line with the findings of other studies [24-28] and illustrate the important role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between anger and its expression.
To support the above-mentioned findings, the results of a study carried out by Herts et al. [35] demonstrated that aggressive behaviors increased in individuals with increased emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, in line with the findings of the current study, the results of a study conducted by Roberton et al. [36] showed that offenders with a maladaptive emotion regulation style reported a broader history of anger and aggression than those with a consistent emotion regulation style. The findings of a study performed by Shorey et al. [37] indicated that pervasive problems in emotion regulation have been associated with violence and can distinguish offenders displaying aggression and crime from non-aggressors.
In addition, the findings of a study carried out by Donahue et al. [18] showed that emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between negative affect and aggression. Finally, Mahmoud Nejad et al. [38] demonstrated that difficulty in regulating emotion and emotional distress can predict interpersonal violence. The results of the present study suggested that the ability to perceive and regulate emotions is considered to be an important factor in psychological balance, and failure to regulate emotions can have negative consequences, including anger and subsequent aggression or rumination.
Re-appraisal involves the management of your own and others’ emotions, enhancing an individual’s ability to adapt and organize in stimulating situations; according, individuals with the capacity to emotionally grow and free from any internal or external coercion can experience emotions. In contrast, individuals who are not capable of managing emotionally enhanced emotions cannot experience emotion well under external or internal coercion; therefore, they are prone to the negative consequences of avoiding emotional experiences. This finding may also support previous results regarding the association between emotional re-appraisal as an emotional adaptive strategy and psychological distress. Since emotions are socially useful and can be effective in displaying feelings, improving social interactions, and maintaining and destroying relationships with others, the regulation of emotions can play an influential role.
In addition, given that emotion regulation strategies can be considered efficient (e.g., acceptance, re-appraisal, and problem-solving) and dysfunctional (e.g., suppression, avoidance, and rumination) [39], the following results can be explained. Individuals with high levels of anger use a set of dysfunctional emotional strategies. Accordingly, by constantly thinking about future events, they somehow judge their own thoughts, and this impedes awareness and acceptance of the emotion. It also prevents from re-evaluating the situation from positive or harmful perspectives by the engagement in the angry thoughts. The ability to recognize and express emotional experiences seems to be an aspect of emotion regulation associated with anger. Defects in the aforementioned areas are explained by structural problems in cognitive emotion regulation.
Cognitive processes of emotion regulation can help an individual to manage or regulate emotions after anger and stressful events [40]. In fact, individuals in stressful situations, such as when competing in a sports game, may positively or negatively experience different emotions; however, individuals are often less likely to experience negative emotions. Consequently, when an individual loses a few points in a race, this in turn sparks anger. Now, if the atmosphere of the match also goes up against him/her or the spectators start to criticize his/her poor performance, all of these factors come together and cause misalignment or disruption to the experienced emotions. In this case, if the individual is unable to manage his or her emotions and incapable of coping with the anger simultaneously occurring, this maladjustment will result in verbal or behavioral aggression or suppression and rumination.
The results of this study showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between the intensity of anger and its expression in competitive athletes. The obtained findings indicated that emotion dysregulation is one of the important factors associated with anger and aggression. Therefore, this variable should be considered important in the development of psychological interventions. One of the limitations of this study was the use of self-report questionnaires in data collection. The current study was also conducted on competitive athletes in Ardabil making it difficult to extend it to other geographical regions of the country. Therefore, it is suggested to carry out similar studies on other samples in other regions of the country and use other data collection tools.
Compliance with ethical guidelines
All the ethical principles were considered in the present study. The participants were informed about the purpose of the study and implementation of stages. In addition, informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Moreover, the participants were also assured of the confidentiality of their information. Furthermore, the study subjects were allowed to withdraw from the study at any time, and the results of the study would be available to them if desired. This article was extracted from the dissertation of a doctoral degree in clinical psychology at Shahed University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to all the athletes contributing to this study.
The current study did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.
  2. DiGiuseppe R, Tafrate RC. Anger treatment for adults: a meta‐analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2003; 10(1):70-84. [DOI:10.1093/clipsy.10.1.70]
  3. Krenn B, Meier J. Does facial width-to-height ratio predict aggressive behavior in association football? Evolutionary Psychology. 2018; 16(4):1-18. [DOI:10.1177/147470491
  4. Carleton EL, Barling J, Christie AM, Trivisonno M, Tulloch K, Beauchamp MR. Scarred for the rest of my career? Career-long effects of abusive leadership on professional athlete aggression and task performance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 2016; 38(4):409-22. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.2015-0333] [PMID]
  5. Kerr JH. The enjoyment of sanctioned aggression in rugby: the experience of a pioneering female Canadian team captain. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2019; 17(6):578-90. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.
  6. Cusimano MD, Ilie G, Mullen SJ, Pauley CR, Stulberg JR, Topolovec-Vranic J, et al. Aggression, violence and injury in minor league ice hockey: avenues for prevention of injury. PloS One. 2016; 11(6):e0156683. [DOI:10.1371/journal.
    [PMID] [PMCID]
  7. Krenzer WL, Splan ED. Evaluating the heat‐aggression hypothesis: the role of temporal and social factors in predicting baseball related aggression. Aggressive Behavior. 2018; 44(1):83-8. [DOI:10.1002/ab.21726] [PMID]
  8. Young TJ. Sensation seeking and self-reported criminality among student-athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1990;70(3 Pt 1):959-62. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1990.70.3.959] [PMID]
  9. O’Brien KS, Kolt GS, Martens MP, Ruffman T, Miller PG, Lynott D. Alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople/athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2012; 15(4):292-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.
  10. Sønderlund AL, O’Brien K, Kremer P, Rowland B, De Groot F, Staiger P, et al. The association between sports participation, alcohol use and aggression and violence: a systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2014; 17(1):2-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.03.011] [PMID]
  11. Sofia R, Cruz JF. Exploring individual differences in the experience of anger in sport competition: The importance of cognitive, emotional, and motivational variables. Journal
    of Applied Sport Psychology. 2016; 28(3):350-66. [DOI:10.1080/10413200.2015.1121170]
  12. Weinberg RS, Gould D. Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. 7th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2018.
  13. Gardner FL, Moore ZE. Understanding clinical anger and violence: the anger avoidance model. Behavior Modification. 2008; 32(6):897-912. [DOI:10.1177/014544
  14. Rottenberg J, Gross JJ. When emotion goes wrong: Realizing the promise of affective science. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2003; 10(2):227-32. [DOI:10.1093/
  15. Roberton T, Daffern M, Bucks RS. Emotion regulation and aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2012; 17(1):72-82. [DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2011.09.006]
  16. Dettore MM, Pabian C, Gardner FL. Difficulties in emotion regulation as a mediator between childhood trauma and anger pathology. World Congress of Behavior and Cognitive Therapies, Boston, USA; 2010.
  17. Gardner FL, Moore ZE, Dettore M. The relationship between anger, childhood maltreatment, and emotion regulation difficulties in intimate partner and non-intimate partner violent offenders. Behavior Modification. 2014; 38(6):779-800. [DOI:10.1177/0145445514539346] [PMID]
  18. Donahue JJ, Goranson AC, McClure KS, Van Male LM. Emotion dysregulation, negative affect, and aggression: A moderated, multiple mediator analysis. Personality and Individual Differences. 2014; 70:23-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.
  19. Cohn AM, Jakupcak M, Seibert LA, Hildebrandt TB, Zeichner A. The role of emotion dysregulation in the association between men’s restrictive emotionality and use of physical aggression. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 2010; 11(1):53. [DOI:10.1037/a0018090]
  20. Pond Jr RS, Kashdan TB, DeWall CN, Savostyanova A, Lambert NM, Fincham FD. Emotion differentiation moderates aggressive tendencies in angry people: a daily diary analysis. Emotion. 2012; 12(2):326-37. [DOI:10.1037/
  21. Garofalo C, Velotti P. Negative emotionality and aggression in violent offenders: the moderating role of emotion dysregulation. Journal of Criminal Justice. 2017; 51:9-16. [DOI:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.05.015]
  22. Helmsen J, Koglin U, Petermann F. Emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in preschoolers: the mediating role of social information processing. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 2012; 43(1):87-101. [DOI:10.1007/s10578-011-0252-3] [PMID]
  23. Röll J, Koglin U, Petermann F. Emotion regulation and childhood aggression: Longitudinal associations. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 2012; 43(6):909-23. [DOI:10.1007/s10578-012-0303-4] [PMID]
  24. Cooley JL, Fite PJ. Peer victimization and forms of aggression during middle childhood: The role of emotion regulation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2016; 44(3):535-46. [DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0051-6] [PMID]
  25. Garofalo C, Velotti P, Zavattini GC. Emotion regulation and aggression: the incremental contribution of alexithymia, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation facets. Psychology of Violence. 2018; 8(4):470. [DOI:10.1037/vio0000141]
  26. Cooley JL, Ritschel LA, Frazer AL, Blossom JB. The influence of internalizing symptoms and emotion dysregulation on the association between witnessed community violence and aggression among urban adolescents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 2019; 50(6):883-93. [DOI:10.1007/
    [PMID] [PMCID]
  27. Cuccì G, O'Leary KD, Olivari MG, Bonanomi A, Confalonieri E. Adolescent dating violence perpetration, emotion dysregulation, and parenting styles. Journal of Family Psychology. 2019; 33(1):12-22. [DOI:10.1037/
  28. Hitti SA, Sullivan TN, McDonald SE, Farrell AD. Longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression and externalizing outcomes: Indirect effects of anger dysregulation and callous‐unemotional traits. Aggressive Behavior. 2019; 45(1):93-102. [DOI:10.1002/ab.21800] [PMID]
  29. Snell Jr WE, Gum S, Shuck RL, Mosley JA, Kite TL. The clinical anger scale: Preliminary reliability and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1995; 51(2):215-26. [DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(199503)51:2<215::aid-jclp22705
  30. Siegel JM. The multidimensional anger inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1986; 51(1):191-200. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.51.1.191] [PMID]
  31. Besharat M. Psychometric properties of the multidimensional anger inventory. Tehran: University of Tehran; 2007.
  32. Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2004; 26(1):41-54.
  33. Azizi AR, Mirzaei A, Shams J. Correlation between distress tolerance and emotional regulation with students smoking dependence. Hakim Research Journal. 2010; 13(1):11-8.
  34. Besharat MA. The scale of the difficulty of emotion regulation. Andishe va Raftar. 2018; 13(47):80-92.
  35. Herts KL, McLaughlin KA, Hatzenbuehler ML. Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking stress exposure to adolescent aggressive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2012; 40(7):1111-22. [DOI:10.1007/s10802-012-9629-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
  36. Roberton T, Daffern M, Bucks RS. Maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression in adult offenders. Psychology, Crime & Law. 2014; 20(10):933-54. [DOI:10.1080/
  37. Shorey RC, Brasfield H, Febres J, Stuart GL. An examination of the association between difficulties with emotion regulation and dating violence perpetration. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma. 2011; 20(8):870-85.
    [DOI:10.1080/10926771.2011.629342] [PMID] [PMCID]
  38. Mahmoodnejad M, Karbalaie A, Meigooni M, Sabet M. Prediction of suicidal ideation and interpersonal violence among labor children based on childhood trauma, emotion regulation difficulties and callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Psychological Achievements. 2018; 25(1):1-22.
  39. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: a transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010; 48(10):974-83. [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.002] [PMID]
  40. Garnefski N, Kraaij V. Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual Differences. 2006; 40(8):1659-69. [DOI:10.1016/

Article Type: Research Article | Subject: Clinical Psychology
Received: 2020/02/11 | Accepted: 2020/05/2 | Published: 2020/08/14

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY 4.0 | Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psycho Physiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb